Lesson#3 Iru-Aru

Iru and Aru are the verbs used to express the existence of something. So they mean “to be (in a certain place)” “to exist” or simply “there is”
Iru is used for persons and animals while Aru is for all the rest.
Those 2 verbs are used in many others constructs as auxiliary verbs but it’s not the moment to study it.
As usual, they have a polite form: imasu and arimasu

So a pair of examples:

庭には猫がいる
niwa ni wa neko ga iru
There is a cat in the garden (庭–>niwa–>garden 猫–>neko–>cat)

ペンは机の上にあります
pen wa tsukue no ue ni arimasu
The pen is on the desk (ペン–>pen 机–>tsukue–>desk “no ue ni”–>on )

Just as “desu”, iru and aru have negative and past forms with respective polite forms.
So simply study all of them ^^

Iru-Imasu (plain+formal form)

Negative
nai – imasen
Past
ita – imashita
Negative Past
ita nai – imasen deshita

Aru – Arimasu (plain+formal form)

Negative
nai – arimasen
Past
atta – arimashita
Negative Past
nakatta – arimasen deshita

They all works in the same way, so I don’t make examples but I go a little bit further.
In this kind of sentences, you may want/need to tell where  things are or how many of them there are.. so this is how u can do it:

“Place” ni N ga “number” arimasu/imasu

ここに辞書が三冊ある
koko ni jisho ga sansatsu aru
Here there are 3 dictionaries (ここに–>koko ni–>here 辞書–>jisho->disctionary 三冊–>sansatsu–>3+counter for books)

部屋の中に学生が八人います
heya no naka ni gakusei ga hachinin imasu
In the room there are 8 students (部屋–>heya–>room の中に–>no naka ni–> in, inside 八人–>hachinin–> 8+counter for person)

When you have to do negative sentences (there is not), the particle “wa” is used instead of “ga”.

この国に石油はない
kono kuni ni sekiyu wa nai
there is no oil in this country (国–>kuni–>country 石油–>sekiyu–>oil)

この山にからすはいません
kono yama ni karasu wa imasen
there are no crows on this mountain (山–>yama–>mountain からす–>karasu–>crow)

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Posted on 27 November 2015, in Japanese, Learning Japanese, Lesson and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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