Lesson#7 – Adjectives (Part 2)
In the first part we saw how to conjugate adjectives and how to use their B4 (attributive) B3 (predicative) and B2 (past and negative) conjugation.
In this lesson we go even further and we’ll see many other ways to use adjectives.
Other functions of the B2
In this function, adjectives are changed into adverbs, what in english is usually -ly (e.g. quickly).
For i-adj you just have to use the B2 without adding auxiliary:
kawaii (cute)—> kawai + ku (desinence) —> kawaiku (cutely)
Watashi wa kawaiku utau
I sing cutely (utau–>to sing)
For na-adj you use the b2 with desinence “ni”, always without auxiliary.
kantanna (easy)—> kantan + ni (desinence) —> kantan ni (easily)
watashi wa kantan ni katta
I won easily (katta–>won)
Adverbial form + naru/suru
adjective+ naru —> to become adjective
adjective + suru —> to make (something) adjective
akaku naru —> to become red
shizuka ni naru —> to become quiet
atsui kara, anata no kao wa akaku natta
your face became red cause it was hot (暑いから–>atsui kara–> cause it was hot, 顔–>kao–> face, なった–>natta–>past form of naru)
totsuzen kodomotachi wa shizuka ni natta
suddenly the kids became quiet (突然–>totsuzen–>suddenly, 子供–>kodomo–>kid)
yawarakaku suru —> to make (something) soft
kantan ni suru —> to make (something) easy
kore o yawarakaku suru youni nishimasu
In order to soften this, heat up (これ–>kore–> this, ように–> youni–> in order to, 煮します–> nishimasu–> heat up)
shiken o motto kantan ni suru
Make the exam easier (試験–>shiken–>exam, もっと–>motto–>more)
Coordination of more than 1 adjective
How it works when you have to use more than 1 adjective together?
like—> “the house was old, dirty and small”
like—> “the woman is beautiful, kind and quiet”
In english you do nothing at all, you just add all the adjectives. In japanese instead you have to coordinate them.
To coordinate them you can use the B2 with desinence “ku” for i-adj or “de” for na-adj.
All the adjectives EXCEPT the last one must be in this form.. the last is conjugated in the appropriate way depending on its meaning and function.
“the house was old, dirty and small” is:
ie wa furuku kitanaku chiisakatta
furui (B4)—-> furuku (B2)
kitanai (B4)—-> kitanaku (B2)
chiisai (B4)—-> chiisakatta (B2 for the past form)
The meaning of “furuku” and “kitanaku” is unclear until you listen to the last adjective’s form that determine the function of ALL the adjetives.
“ie wa furuku kitanaku chiisai” means “the house is old dirty and small” but the sentence is just the same expect the final adjective right?
“the woman is beautiful, kind and quiet” is:
onna wa kireide yasashiku shizuka da
kireina (B4)—-> kireide (B2)
yasashii (B4)—-> yasashiku (B2)
shizukana (B4)—-> shizuka da (B3)
Again, first and second adjective are in this coordination form, while the last is conjugated according to its function.. in this case the predicative one.
It’s the same for attributive function too.
“a beautiful, kind and quiet woman” is
kireide yasashiku shizukana onna
This time the last adjectives has attributive function so it’s conjugated in its attributive form B4.
As exception, when the adjectives have attributive function, it’s not necessary to coordinate them.. so “a beautiful, kind and quiet woman” can also simply be said “kireina yasashii shizukana onna”, with all the adjectives in their B4 attributive form.
adjectives’ -te form
There is still another way to coordinate adjectives: their “-te form”.
To get it you have to add “te” to the avverbial form for i-adj, while for na-adjectves it’s the same as avverbial form.
yasashii (B4)—-> yasashiku (B2) —-> yasashikute (B2 -te form)
kireina (B4) —-> kireide (B2) —-> kireide (B2 -te form).
Again, all the adjectives but the last one goes in -te form, while the last is conjugated depending on its function.
“the house was old, dirty and small” is:
ie wa furukute kitanakute chiisakatta
Adjectives’ -te form is also used to express a reason clause.
kono ocha wa atsukute nomimasen
I don’t drink this tea cause it’s hot (お茶–> ocha–> tea, nomimasen–> to not drink)
To make it simple, if the adjective’s -te form is followed by other adjectives.. this form is only used to coordinate the adjectives so to understand the meaning you have to see the form of the last adjective. If the -te form isn’t followed by another adjective.. it express the reason why the predicate of the sentence happens.
Adjectives are now over! Almost We still have to talk about B1 and B5 but it’s fast
B1 and B5
B1 is used to express uncertainty, while B5 is used to express the conditional.
takai (B4) —> takakarou (B1) —> is probably expensive
shizukana (B4) —> shizuka darou (B1) —> is probably quiet
takai (B4) —> takakereba (B5) —> if it is expensive
shizukana (B4) —> shizuka naraba (B5) —> if it is quiet
kono kuruma wa takakarou
this car is probably expensive
ano onna wa shizuka darou
that woman is probably quiet
kono kuruma wa takakereba, kawanakatta
If this car had been expensive, I would have not bought it (kawanakatta—> past negative of kau (buy))
ano onna wa shizuka naraba, suki desu
If that woman is quiet, i’ll like her
There are other ways to make presumtive and conditional clauses with adjectives but we are talking about adjectives conjugations so for the moment we are done 🙂