Lesson#7 – Adjectives (Part 2)

In the first part we saw how to conjugate adjectives and how to use their B4 (attributive) B3 (predicative) and B2 (past and negative) conjugation.

In this lesson we go even further and we’ll see many other ways to use adjectives.

Other functions of the B2

Adverbial function

In this function, adjectives are changed into adverbs, what in english is usually -ly  (e.g. quickly).
For i-adj you just have to use the B2 without adding auxiliary:

kawaii (cute)—> kawai + ku (desinence) —> kawaiku (cutely)

Watashi wa kawaiku utau
I sing cutely (utau–>to sing)

For na-adj you use the b2 with desinence “ni”, always without auxiliary.

kantanna (easy)—> kantan + ni (desinence) —> kantan ni (easily)

watashi wa kantan ni katta
I won easily (katta–>won)

Adverbial form + naru/suru

adjective+ naru —> to become adjective
adjective + suru —> to make (something) adjective

akaku naru —> to become red
shizuka ni naru —> to become quiet

暑いからあなたの顔は赤くなった
atsui kara, anata no kao wa akaku natta
your face became red cause it was hot (暑いから–>atsui kara–> cause it was hot, 顔–>kao–> face, なった–>natta–>past form of naru)

突然子供たちは静かになった
totsuzen kodomotachi wa shizuka ni natta
suddenly the kids became quiet (突然–>totsuzen–>suddenly, 子供–>kodomo–>kid)

yawarakaku suru —> to make (something) soft
kantan ni suru —> to make (something) easy

これをやわらかくするように煮します
kore o yawarakaku suru youni nishimasu
In order to soften this, heat up (これ–>kore–> this, ように–> youni–> in order to, 煮します–> nishimasu–> heat up)

試験をもっと簡単にする
shiken o motto kantan ni suru
Make the exam easier (試験–>shiken–>exam, もっと–>motto–>more)

Coordination of more than 1 adjective

How it works when you have to use more than 1 adjective together?

like—> “the house was old, dirty and small”
like—> “the woman is beautiful, kind and quiet”

In english you do nothing at all, you just add all the adjectives. In japanese instead you have to coordinate them.
To coordinate them you can use the B2 with desinence “ku” for i-adj or “de” for na-adj.
All the adjectives EXCEPT the last one must be in this form.. the last is conjugated in the appropriate way depending on its meaning and function.

“the house was old, dirty and small” is:
ie wa furuku kitanaku chiisakatta

furui (B4)—-> furuku (B2)
kitanai (B4)—-> kitanaku (B2)
chiisai (B4)—-> chiisakatta (B2 for the past form)

The meaning of “furuku” and “kitanaku” is unclear until you listen to the last adjective’s form that determine the function of ALL the adjetives.
“ie wa furuku kitanaku chiisai” means “the house is old dirty and small” but the sentence is just the same expect the final adjective right?

“the woman is beautiful, kind and quiet” is:
onna wa kireide yasashiku shizuka da

kireina (B4)—-> kireide (B2)
yasashii (B4)—-> yasashiku (B2)
shizukana (B4)—-> shizuka da (B3)

Again, first and second adjective are in this coordination form, while the last is conjugated according to its function.. in this case the predicative one.

It’s the same for attributive function too.
“a beautiful, kind and quiet woman” is
kireide yasashiku shizukana onna

This time the last adjectives has attributive function so it’s conjugated in its attributive form B4.
As exception, when the adjectives have attributive function, it’s not necessary to coordinate them.. so “a beautiful, kind and quiet woman” can also simply be said “kireina yasashii shizukana onna”, with all the adjectives in their B4 attributive form.

adjectives’ -te form

There is still another way to coordinate adjectives: their “-te form”.
To get it you have to add “te” to the avverbial form for i-adj, while for na-adjectves it’s the same as avverbial form.

yasashii (B4)—-> yasashiku (B2) —-> yasashikute (B2 -te form)
kireina (B4) —-> kireide (B2) —-> kireide (B2 -te form).

Again, all the adjectives but the last one goes in -te form, while the last is conjugated depending on its function.

“the house was old, dirty and small” is:
ie wa furukute kitanakute chiisakatta

Adjectives’ -te form is also used to express a reason clause.

このお茶を暑くて飲みません
kono ocha wa atsukute nomimasen
I don’t drink this tea cause it’s hot (お茶–> ocha–> tea, nomimasen–> to not drink)

To make it simple, if the adjective’s -te form is followed by other adjectives.. this form is only used to coordinate the adjectives so to understand the meaning you have to see the form of the last adjective. If the -te form isn’t followed by another adjective.. it express the reason why the predicate of the sentence happens.

Adjectives are now over! Almost :D We still have to talk about B1 and B5 but it’s fast :D

B1 and B5

B1 is used to express uncertainty, while B5 is used to express the conditional.

takai (B4) —> takakarou (B1) —> is probably expensive
shizukana (B4) —> shizuka darou (B1) —> is probably quiet

takai (B4) —> takakereba (B5) —> if it is expensive
shizukana (B4) —> shizuka naraba (B5) —> if it is quiet

この車は高かろう
kono kuruma wa takakarou
this car is probably expensive

あの女は静かだろう
ano onna wa shizuka darou
that woman is probably quiet

この車が高ければ、買わなかった
kono kuruma wa takakereba, kawanakatta
If this car had been expensive, I would have not bought it (kawanakatta—> past negative of kau (buy))

あの女が静かならば、好きです
ano onna wa shizuka naraba, suki desu
If that woman is quiet, i’ll like her

There are other ways to make presumtive and conditional clauses with adjectives but we are talking about adjectives conjugations so for the moment we are done 🙂

 

 

Advertisements

Posted on 13 December 2015, in Japanese, Learning Japanese, Lesson and tagged , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Japanese home recipes

Easy & healthy Japanese home cooking recipes

Creativity✒📃😍✌

“Don’t try to be different. Just be Creative. To be creative is different enough.”

Cafe Book Bean

Talk Books. Drink Coffee.

Kaito monogatari

My journey in self studying Japanese

J-pop Through My Looking Glass

A voyage of discovery through popular music in Japan

Scooter vs Japan

A foam puppet's romantic battle against the Mystic East

48 Shades

the long road to Japanese fluency

Meiwa fill you in

A smalltown kid on an international adventure

Japan Explained FASAQ

The Whys and Wherefores of All Things Japanese

%d bloggers like this: